Spoken Language

At the end of the year most children should be able to begin to show awareness of the listener by including some detail and speak clearly when developing and explaining their ideas. They need also to be able to be aware of the need to use more formal vocabulary and tone of voice in some situations. Some children will be able to talk and listen confidently in different contexts, begin to adapt to the listener by varying vocabulary and level of detail and be aware of standard English and when it is used. Most children should be able to:

  • Listen to adults and their peers and respond appropriately
  • Speak audibly to a range of audiences, and articulate clearly
  • Have a developing vocabulary and understanding in a range of contexts and topics
  • Ask some questions to extend their understanding and knowledge
  • Maintain attention and participate in conversations with groups of different sizes
  • Participate in discussions, role play and improvisations and present their ideas to others



At the end of the year most children should be able to:

  • Respond speedily with the correct sound to graphemes for each of the 40+ phonemes.
  • Apply their phonic knowledge to blending (reading) and segmenting (spelling) sounds for the 40+ phonemes
  • Be aware of and recognise alternate sounds (eg j spelt dge, r spelt wr)
  • Be aware of and recognise the ve sound at the end of words
  • Add suffixes to spell longer words and apply endings to verbs (eg –ed, -ing, -ment, -ness, -ful and –less)
  • Recognise the different ways of making plurals (eg –s, -es, -ies)
  • Be aware of and apply the endings –er and –est to adjectives
  • Use contractions with an apostrophe (eg can’t)
  • Use the possessive apostrophe (eg the girl’s)
  • Know the difference in meaning between homophones (eg there/their/they’re)
  • Read common exception words (“tricky” words), noting where there are unusual correspondences between spelling and sound
  • Accurately maintain present and past tenses
  • Comprehension – the understanding of the text, increases pupils’ understanding vocabulary, broadens their knowledge and understanding of themselves and the world, fosters a love of reading,



Word Reading – the use of phonics and other strategies to decode unfamiliar words.

Comprehension – the understanding of the text, increases pupils understanding vocabulary, broadens their knowledge and understanding of themselves and the world, fosters a love of reading,


Word Reading

At the end of the year most children should be able to:

  • Read aloud accurately books which closely match their growing word-reading knowledge
  • Re-read books to develop confidence and fluency
  • Sustain reading with phrasing and fluency to support meaning taking note of punctuation
  • Integrate phonic strategies with picture and context clues
  • Show an awareness when reading does not make sense and attempt to self-correct

Some children will be able to make use of intonation, expression and punctuation to enhance reading, apply an appropriate range of strategies to enable accurate silent reading and also be able to read with appropriate phrasing taking account of an increasing range of punctuation. Some children will also be able to read with confidence and fluency for different purposes and begin to sustain silent reading for longer periods.



At the end of the year most children will be able to summarise key points or events using direct reference from a text, be able to draw inferences, predict what might happen from details stated and implied, discuss words and phrases that capture the reader’s interest and imagination and locate, retrieve and record information from non-fiction texts and navigate their way around these texts. Through listening to stories, poems and other texts most children should also be able to participate in discussions, taking turns and listening to others and ask appropriate questions and explain clearly their understanding. Children should be able to check that the text makes sense as they read and be able to correct their own inaccuracies.


Children at Valley End Infant School are encouraged to develop pleasure and motivation to read by listening to and discussing a wide range of poems and stories at a level beyond that which they can read independently. They will be able to link this to their own experiences. Children become familiar with key stories and traditional tales and are encouraged to learn by heart rhymes and poems and recite these with appropriate intonation to make meaning clearer.



Transcription (spelling and handwriting, grammar and punctuation)


At the end of the year most children will be able to:

  • Add suffixes to regular verbs (eg –ing -ed)
  • Spell accurately most of the next 200 High Frequency Spelling List Appendix 1 in DfES “Letters and Sounds”
  • Use phonic understanding to make plausible attempts to spell unknown words
  • Spell accurately the days of the week
  • Use their knowledge of  the 40+ graphemes to spell out other words they want to use
  • Name the letters of the alphabet and use the letter names to distinguish between alternative spellings of the same sound
  • Use the prefix – un (eg untie)
  • Use the suffixes  -ing, -ed, -er and –est, and using the spelling rule for adding –s or –es for plural nouns and for verbs in the third person singular (eg he runs; he carries)
  • Write from memory simple dictated sentences which include words using the graphemes taught so far as well as common exception words
  • Sit correctly at a table, using an appropriate pencil hold
  • Children understand that letters can be grouped in “families” – letters which can be formed in similar ways
  • Use a consistently joined and legible style of handwriting
  • Be aware of the correct size and orientation of capital letters, lower case and digits
  • Demarcate most sentences accurately with a capital letter and full stop, exclamation or question mark
  • Use commas in lists
  • Write sentences in different forms, statement, question, exclamation and command
  • Use co-ordination (eg and, or, but)
  • Use subordination (eg when, if, that)
  • Use descriptive words and phrases
  • Use simple time connectives


Composition (articulating and structuring ideas)


At the end of the year most children should be able to write sentences after orally composing them and saying them out loud. They will use adventurous word choices to engage the reader, write for different purposes using appropriate features for the chosen form of writing, structure their writing logically e.g. use paragraphs, linking ideas together and begin to proof read and edit their writing. They will have the ability to read aloud their writing, clearly enough to be hear by adults or their peers and be able to discuss this. Some children will be able to develop a more fluent style that is more organised, imaginative and clear and proof read and edit their writing effectively and independently (sometimes with a learning partner). They will account for the reader and be able to hold the reader’s interest.


Composition (vocabulary, grammar and punctuation)

At the end of the year, most children should

  • Leave clear spaces between words
  • Link ideas by joining words and clauses using “and”
  • Use capital letters and full stops consistently to demarcate sentences, and begin to use other punctuation marks such as question marks and exclamation marks
  • Use capital letters for names of people, places, days of the week, and the personal pronoun “I”
  • Use regular plural noun suffixes –s or –es (eg dog/ dogs; wish/ wishes)
  • Use suffixes that can be added to verbs where no change is needed in the spelling of root words (eghelping, helped, helper)
  • Know how words can combine to make sentences
  • Use “and” to join words and clauses
  • Begin to use features such as simple adjectives (eg bigredfluffy) and adverbs (eg quickly,quietly) to add detail to their writing
  • Use the correct grammatical terminology when discussing their writing (letter, capital letter, word, singular, plural, sentence, punctuation, full stop, question mark, exclamation mark)

Some children could

  • Begin to use features of more advanced sentence structures (eg “After they had given their Daddy a kiss goodbye, Peter and Poppy went out to play in the back garden”)





See section on Transcription above