Spoken Language

At the end of the year most children should

  • Listen and respond appropriately to adults and their peers
  • Ask relevant questions to extend their understanding
  • Justify answers and opinions
  • Gain the interest of the listener
  • Maintain attention and participate actively in collaborative conversations
  • Begin to be aware of the need to use more formal vocabulary and tone of voice in some situations
  • Develop an increasing awareness of standard English

 

Phonics

At the end of the year most children should

  • Apply their phonic knowledge to blending (reading) and segmenting (spelling) sounds
  • Be aware of and recognise alternative graphemes and phonemes
  • Add prefixes and suffixes to spell longer words (eg –ed, -ing, -ment, -ness, -ful and –less
  • Recognise the different ways of making plurals (eg –s, -es, -ies)
  • Use contractions with an apostrophe (eg can’t)
  • Use the possessive apostrophe (eg the girl’s)
  • Know the difference in meaning between homophones (eg there/their/they’re)
  • Read and spell compound words

 

 

Reading

Word reading – the use of phonics and other strategies to decode unfamiliar words

Comprehension – the understanding of the text, increases pupils’ understanding vocabulary, broadens their knowledge and understanding of themselves and the world, fosters a love of reading,

 

Word reading

At the end of the year most children should

  • Make use of intonation, expression and punctuation to enhance reading
  • Read with appropriate phrasing taking account of an increasing range of punctuation
  • Appropriately apply a range of strategies to enable accurate silent reading

Some children could

  • Read with confidence and fluency for different purposes
  • Sustain silent reading for longer periods

 

Comprehension

At the end of the year most children should

  • Check that the text makes sense and correct inaccuracies as they read
  • Summarise key points or events using direct reference from a text
  • Be able to draw inferences
  • Predict what might happen from details stated and implied
  • Discuss words and phrases that capture the reader’s interest and imagination
  • Locate, retrieve and record information from non-fiction texts
  • Discuss the meanings of words and link new meanings to known vocabulary

Through listening to stories, poems and other texts most children should

  • Participate in discussions, taking turns and listening to others
  • Recognise simple recurring literary language in stories and poetry
  • Ask appropriate questions and explain clearly their understanding

 

Children are encouraged to develop pleasure and motivation to read by

  • Listening to and discussing a wide range of poems and stories at a level beyond that which they can read independently
  • Becoming familiar with key stories and traditional tales
  • Learning by heart rhymes and poems and recite these with appropriate intonation to make meaning clearer

 

Writing

Transcription (handwriting and spelling)

At the end of the year most children should

  • Spell words by segmenting
  • Spell common exception words
  • Spell using contracted forms
  • Use the possessive apostrophe
  • Be able to use homophones and near homophones to spell
  • Add suffixes to lengthen words (eg –ment, -ness, -ful, -less and –ly)
  • Add suffixes to regular verbs (eg –ing -ed)
  • Spell accurately most of the next 200 High Frequency Spelling List Appendix 1 in DfES “Letters and Sounds”
  • Use phonic understanding to make plausible attempts to spell unknown words
  • Use a consistently joined and legible style of handwriting
  • Be aware of the correct size and orientation of capital letters, lower case and digits
  • Use spacing between words that reflects the size of the letters

Composition (articulating and structuring ideas)

At the end of the year most children should

  • Plan what they are going to write by writing down ideas and/ or key words, including new vocabulary
  • Use appropriate features for the chosen form of writing
  • Structure their writing logically e.g. use paragraphs, linking ideas together
  • Begin to proofread, edit and assess their writing with a teacher or their peers
  • Read aloud using appropriate intonation and expression

Some children could

  • Develop a more fluent style that is more organised, imaginative and clear
  • Proof read and edit their writing effectively and independently

 

Composition (vocabulary, grammar and punctuation)

  • Demarcate most sentences accurately with a capital letter and full stop, exclamation or question mark
  • Use both familiar and new punctuation correctly (full stops, capital letters, exclamation marks, question marks, commas in lists and apostrophes for contracted forms and for possession)
  • Write sentences in different forms, statement, question, exclamation and command
  • Expand noun sentences to describe (eg the blue butterfly)
  • Accurately maintain present and past tenses
  • Use co-ordination (eg and, or, but)
  • Use subordination (eg when, if, that)
  • Use descriptive words and phrases
  • Use simple time connectives